- 1 Some generic comments
- 2 Some basic analyses
- 3 Next steps
Some generic comments
In a MD simulation, you follow the atomic motions of a system (such as a solvated protein) over time. Normally, you save this information (the coordinates at a specific timestep) in regular intervals, generating trajectories. These trajectories are the key for later analysis. In passing, we note that in addition to coordinates one sometimes also saves the velocities for later analysis.
One obvious thing to do with trajectories is to watch a "molecular movie", using programs such as VMD. Occasionally, watching such a movie may provide interesting insight; most of the time, however, one is left with "information overload"; the human mind is not capable of analyzing in raw form the coordinates of several thousands atoms (or more).
Trajectories, therefore, have to be processed before a meaningful analysis is possible. It is at this step that (intimate) knowledge of statistical mechanics is most needed; one might argue that your command of statistical mechanics (and statistics in general) is the limiting factor for your analyses (note: stat. mech. provides the bridge between microscopic quantities you can derive from the trajectories and macroscopic quantities you can deduce from experiments). In as much as there is no limit to the analyses you can carry out, there can be no guide covering all aspects. There is, however, one type of analysis that is carried out after (or during) almost all MD simulations: monitoring how much the structure of your protein changes compared to the starting structure (be that the original pdb structure, or the structure after some minimization / equilibration): In the following, we'll focus on this task and use it to present some of the most important analysis facilities of CHARMM. In particular, we'll compute the root mean square deviation (RMSD) from the starting structure and monitor the solvent accessible surface area (SASA) and the radius of gyration. As a more advanced example, we'll look at the conservation of secondary structure elements (only recent versions of CHARMM can do this with built-in tools, so we can use this example to illustrate how external tools can be used to aid in the analysis of trajectories (if no suitable built in tool exists!).
Trajectories are not the only useful source of information about a run; many properties such as average potential or kinetic energy can be computed from the output file. Rick Venable has written a useful script for doing this, which may be found in this CHARMM forum post.
On trajectory organization
In this section, we try to summarize things to know that are common to all (most) analyses in CHARMM.
A production MD simulation of a solvated protein can require weeks and months of computer time. Obviously, one doesn't trust the computer not to crash during this time, so, usually, the calculation is split into shorter pieces by means of restart files. Thus, at the end of the simulation, one doesn't have a single trajectory, but ten or fifty or even more trajectories. (Trajectories contain vast amounts of data, so even if one had an "ultra-stable" computer with a guaranteed uptime of 6 months, one most likely would have to split the computation since a full trajectory might easily exceed the capacity of some widely used file systems!) The analysis commands in CHARMM can handle such series of trajectories and actually check whether pieces are processed in chronological order. For CHARMM version c35 and earlier, the maximum guaranteed number of files (including standard input and output) that can be open at any one time is 99. For the newer, Fortran 95 versions (c36 and up, which are as of this writing not available to the general public) the limit is whatever the maximum number of open files is for given process as imposed by the operating system. Handling a series of trajectories is done as follows. First, as with all other I/O, trajectories need to be opened first
OPEN UNIT 11 NAME system.1.dcd READ UNFO
with normal syntax; remember, however, that they are binary files, so you need keyword UNFOrmatted or FILE (instead of FORMatted / CARD) for most other files. If you have only one trajectory, the unit number is (mostly) up to you (under Unix/Linux, you may want to avoid unit numbers 0, 1, 5, 6!). Suppose you have 10 trajectories that you want to process by some command later in one sweep (i.e., the 10 trajectories contain chronological coordinate information about your system). You then have to open the ten files with continuous unit numbers. Let's say that your first unit is 11, then your sequence of OPEN statements should look like
OPEN UNIT 11 NAME system.1.dcd READ UNFO OPEN UNIT 12 NAME system.2.dcd READ UNFO OPEN UNIT 13 NAME system.3.dcd READ UNFO ... OPEN UNIT 19 NAME system.9.dcd READ UNFO OPEN UNIT 20 NAME system.10.dcd READ UNFO
Let command be a CHARMM command to process trajectories. You then process your trajectories by a statement like
command FIRStu 11 NUNit 10 <other options to command>
The option FIRStu tells command at which unit number to find the first trajectory file; NUNit provides the information about how many trajectories follow. I.e., we tell command to read 10 trajectories found at unit numbers 11, 12, ... 20. Command now reads all frames from the 10 trajectories in order. Upon switching to a new trajectory file, CHARMM parses header information in the trajectories to carry out some sanity checks. In particular, CHARMM expects coordinate frames in chronological order, since many properties one is interested in are time-dependent. This traps, e.g., the following mistake: Suppose you confused the order of trajectories, as in
! BAD EXAMPLE OPEN UNIT 11 NAME system.1.dcd READ UNFO OPEN UNIT 12 NAME system.3.dcd READ UNFO ! ERROR: example of mistake OPEN UNIT 13 NAME system.2.dcd READ UNFO ...
command FIRStu 11 NUNit 10 <other options to command>
CHARMM will process the first trajectory. When switching to unit 12, connected to system.3.dcd, CHARMM will note that the first coordinate set corresponds not the one it expects following the end of system.1.dcd, ... and you'll crash!
Unit numbers are actually a fairly scarce resource. Once you are done with the trajectories, you should, therefore, CLOSe all trajetories! BTW, OPENing and CLOSing of 10 or 50 trajectories one at a time is not fun. You should quickly consider writing a loop, which is described in the basic CHARMM scripting section.
Going back for one step, we should say a few words about the prerequisites for doing a trajectory analysis. The general rule of the thumb is: Set up your system exactly as you set it up during the generation of the trajectories. In particular, read the same PSF and set the same energy options. If you used PBC and you're performing an analysis that uses crystal and image properties, set these up with CRYSTAL/IMAGe as during MD. For good measure you may want to add SHAKe and other restraints you had during the MD. There are exceptions and border line cases where this doesn't apply, but in 90% of the cases this should work. Thus, an analysis run has typically a structure like the following:
! read rtf ! read params ! read PSF ! read some starting coordinates (necessary when using PBC (CRYStal), ! otherwise optional CRYS DEFI <as during MD> CRYS BUIL IMAG BYSE ... IMAG BYRE ... ENER <all nonbonded options> ! start analysis ! Let there be 10 trajectories OPEN UNIT 11 NAME system.1.dcd READ UNFO OPEN UNIT 12 NAME system.2.dcd READ UNFO OPEN UNIT 13 NAME system.3.dcd READ UNFO ! ... 7 more OPEN statements command FIRStu 11 NUNit 10 <other options to command> CLOSe UNIT 11 CLOSe Unit 12 ! ... 8 more CLOSe statements
Carefully onsulting the documentation of the analysis commands that you want to use is highly recommended. Pay particular attention to whether CRYSTal and IMAGEs need to be set up for that particular analysis and if so be sure to set them up exactly as they were for MD. If these are not needed then you can save some time by not setting them up, particularly if you are running lots of analyses back to back.
Some basic analyses
CORREL is a generalized facility for analyzing trajectories. The subsystem is invoked with the CORREL command, which may take several arguments. It is usually necessary to set the maximum number of atoms (MAXAtoms), and it may be necessary to also adjust the maximum number of timesteps (MAXTimesteps) and series (MAXSeries) if the defaults are insufficient. However, settings these values too high will result in lots of memory being allocated, possibly leading to a crash if the system does not have sufficient RAM.
What CORREL can track
One of the main concepts used by CORREL is the concept of the time series. A time series describes the value of a property such as a bond length, the total energy of the system, or the distance between two atoms, over the course of the simulation. Time series are created via the ENTEr command, which takes a number of different options depending on what time series data is needed. The basic syntax for the command is:
ENTEr <name> <type of data> - <atom selection and subcommands>
Each time series must be given a unique name. Then the user must specify the type of data that is to be collected. An exhaustive listing of supported data types is in correl.doc, but some commonly used ones are:
- BOND for the length between two bonded atoms
- ANGLe for the angle between three atoms
- DIHEdral and IMPRoper
- RMS, for the root mean squared deviation of the system
- ENERgy, for total system energy
- SDIP for the dipole moment of the solvent shell
The atom selection and subcommands differ based on the type of data that is needed, e.g. DIHEdral requires a selection of four atoms while ENERgy requires no further arguments. Consulting the documentation is recommended as a number of data types have different subcommands (e.g. whether or not to mass weight the RMSD).
Once all desired time series are set up via ENTEr, it is necessary to tell CORREL which trajectory or trajectories will be used to populate the time series data. This is done via the TRAJectory command. The basic syntax is:
TRAJectory FIRSTu <x> NUNIt <y> SKIP <skip> - BEGIn <start step> STOP <end step>
Where <x> is the first unit in the series of trajectories and <y> is the number of units to read; following the previous example x is 11 and y is 10. This is why it is important that trajectory unit numbers be consecutive and in order!
Once the TRAJectory command is issued, the time series data will be populated and can be further used.
Display and Manipulation of Trajectory Data
Once the time series are generated, they can be written out to a file or manipulated further. To write out trajectory data, simply open a unit and tell CHARMM to write the data:
correl maxt X enter psi torsion segid resid atomtype1 segid resid atomtype2 segid resid atomtype3 segid resid atomtype4 geometry traj firstu 10 nunit 1 begin 100 stop 21000000 skip 10000 write psi card unit 21 * psi of residue 1 *
Obviously, you must replace segid, resid, and the atom numbers with the correct segments, residues, and atom types for your system.
The resulting data file may be viewed or plotted in an external program such as GNUPlot or XMGrace.
CHARMM also containes facilities for manipulating the data, via the MANTIME command.
Useful properties that can be calculated
Based only on the limited work with CORREL that has been presented so far, several useful properties may be computed from simulation.
The average energy, denoted <E> or is just the average energy value over the course of the simulation.
This can be calculated via extracting the energy at each time step from the trajectory and averaging them. However, a more precise way of calculating this value is to look in the CHARMM output file for lines beginning with "DYNA AVER>". Usually, CHARMM prints out the average values (including the energy) every 1000 steps (unless you tell CHARMM to behave differently -- see the molecular dynamics page for details). These average values are only for the past 1000 (or however many) steps. Using the "DYNA AVER" values will give you a much greater sample size, unless you are saving out every frame into the trajectory file.
The average energy is of primary interest in NVT simulations to determine how much total energy fluctuates at a given temperature, which is useful for determining various statistical mechanics properties. However, it is also interesting in NVE simulations to see the proportion of the total, constant energy that is tied up as potential energy.
The mean structure is just the average coordinate of each molecule, which may be found in a similar manner as the mean energy. The only difference is that the average structure can be mass-weighted.
Root mean square fluctuation
The root mean squared fluctuation is just the average difference between all particles and their average position for a given time step.
Radius of gyration
The radius of gyration measures the average distance between an atom and its center of mass at a given time step. It is used as another measure of how much atoms move around during a simulation.
An example of analyzing a molecular dynamics trajectory is given in the full example. It will show you how to use CORREL to graph various properties. We will also introduce more advanced features, such as time correlation functions and manipulating trajectories. However, a detailed discussion of how to analyze a simulation is beyond the scope of this tutorial.